There are many techniques used in analytical labouratory today, and many new ones are in the process of development. Each technique or method has its own usefulness but not without limitations, hence multiple approach is necessarily most of the times. By the correct understanding of instrument and technique used and coupled with experienced application, getting down to finding the root cause will not only be simpler but quicker. Call and discuss with us, we would be able to share some lights to your issue at hand[/span7][/row]
Showing 1–12 of 34 results
2D/3D X-RAY — X-RAY
X-ray Microtomography is a Non-destructive Technique (NDT) used x-rays to allow inspection at multiple magnifications, angles with X-ray source settings. In Semiconductor industry, it is commonly used to examine wire bonding, die attach voiding etc. In 3D Mode, the X-ray create cross-sections of a physical object and recreate a virtual model (3D model) without destroying the original object. Hence in reality, virtually all tomography today is computed tomography.
•Internal structuaral damaged/defects
•Industrial computed tomography
ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY — AAS
ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY is designed for the quantification of metal elements , and trace metal and trace inorganic elements present in environmental samples. It is done so by measuring absorbed radiation of free atoms of the element of interest and reading of the spectra produced when the sample is excited by radiation.
The atoms absorb ultraviolet visible light and make transitions to a higher energy level. Atomic absorption methods measure the amount of energy in the form of photons of light that are absorbed by the sample. A detector measures the wavelengths of light transmitted by the sample, and compares them to the wavelengths which originally passed through the sample.
A signal processor then integrates the changes in wavelength absorbed, which appear in the readout as peaks of energy absorption at discrete wavelengths. The energy required for an electron to leave an atom is known as ionisation energy and is specific to each chemical element. When an electron moves from one energy level to another within the atom, a photon is emitted. Atoms of an element emit a characteristic spectral line. Every atom has its own distinct pattern of wavelengths at which it will absorb energy, due to the unique configuration of electrons in its outer shell. This enables the qualitative analysis of a sample.
CONFOCAL SCANNING ACOUSTIC MICROSCOPY — CSAM
Confocal Scanning Acoustic Microscopy, generally known as CSAM is a non-destructive (NDT) analysis equipment for detecting and imaging microscopic structures or defects inside a specimen. It is widely used in semiconductors and electronic components by use of the reflection and transmission properties of ultrasonic waves. This technology has an outstanding benefit is its ability to find hidden defects within an assembly that can occur during manufacturing or reliability testing. Defects such as fine cracks, voids, porosity and delaminations can be identified and analysed effectively using CSAM than many other NDT methods such as X-Ray or IR Imaging. Because it is highly sensitive to the elastic properties of the materials it travels through.
Having said that, C-SAM and X-ray techniques complement each other as most labs have both equipment for they reveal different features. Where X-ray relies on differential attenuation of the X-ray energy, CSAM relies on material change and is more sensitive in detecting air-pocket type defects such as cracks, voids and delaminations.
Decapsulation is also known as Decapping or Delidding. A FA step performed to open a plastic package to facilitate the inspection, chemical analysis, or electrical examination of the die and the internal features of the package. There are several methods available:
- Manual Chemical Etching : by using acid to remove the plastic material covering the die. A cavity is first milled on the top surface of the package. Either nitric acid (85°C) or sulfuric acid (140°C) is then repeatedly dropped into the cavity until the die exposed adequately. The unit is then rinsed with acetone followed by D/I water, before being blow-dried.
- Mechanical Decap: this method is employed mainly to avoid the corrosive nature of chemical and when foreign material within the package is of interest of analysis. This technique involves heating the package followed by grinding, breaking, and cutting to separate the top part of the package from its bottom part. This technique destroys the bond wires but preserves the die if used properly.
- Plasma Etching: this method removes plastic by making it react with a gas which will then be vented out of the chamber. It is very clean and selective to the exact point of decap.
- Laser Decap: using laser to ablate the plastic encapsulant material away from a device. Software programable with multiple laser wavelengths to achieve a clean removal of packages and selective.
DYE AND PRY
The "dye and pry" technique, which relies on a liquid dye that penetrates into existing micro cracks or under open solder balls, is a destructive test method for the revealing of defects on the solder ball to pad interface (see figure below). On certain occasions some form of plus or minus pressure will be introduced. After letting the dye dry, the BGA is "pryed" off its PCB and the solder balls are inspected for the presence of the dye which reveals any inter-facial connection problem areas.
Electrical Verification Bench Testing
Electrical Verification Bench Testing is a process to characterize the failure mode of a given sample using various bench equipment for exciting the device and measuring its responses. Since different test parameters require different test conditions, the bench test set-up varies every time a new test parameter needs to be characterized. Hence failure verification may entail the use of several set-ups before the nature of device failure can be fully verified. Below are some examples :
•Power supply & Multimeter
•Curve - Tracer
ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS — ESCA / XPS
ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS(ESCA) is also known as X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy(XPS). This method measures the very top surface chemistry of any material with the depth of about 10nm. The detection cover most elements except for Hydrogen(H) and Helium(He) , oxide thickness measurement at approximately 0.01 atom %. Long detection time is required for it to achieve ppm level.
ESCA is commonly used for analysis of semiconductors, metal alloys, polymers, elements, catalysts, glasses, ceramics, paints, inorganic compounds, plastics, papers, inks, woods, plant parts, make-up materials, teeth, bones, medical implant, bio-materials etc.
In the testing environment only those electrons that escaped from the sample surface into the vacuum chamber and reach the detector will be detected. Therefore, a photo-electron must travel through the sample to make it happen. Photo-emitting electrons can undergo inelastic collisions, recombination, excitation of the sample, recapture or trapping in various excited states within the material, all of these can reduce the number of escaping electrons.
Click on below to see the instrument specification for this analysis>>
ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY — EDS / EDX / XEDS
Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is an analytical technique used for the elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample. It relies on the investigation of an interaction of some source of X-ray excitation and a sample
•Identification of elemental composition of small areas •Mapping of elements present in sample
Our test methods are in compliance with International Standards ASTM E1508-12a (Standard Guide for Quantitative Analysis by Energy-